1010 belongs to class of plain low carbon steel containing 0.10wt% Carbon and less than 1% Mn. This steel is high ductility and formability with good electrical conductivity. Principle application of this steel mainly includes in steel bar products, cold-heated bolts and fasteners, piping components, and wire products.
Similar Steels having Similar Characteristics
- AMS 5010
- 5042. 504-t. 5047. 5053:
- ASTM A 108. A510. A519. A545. A519. A575, A576;
- MILSPEC MIL-S-11310 (CSIOIO);
- SAE J103. J-IIZ. J4l-l: (Ger.)
- DIN I.1121(Fr.)
- JIS S l0C
|Manganese, Mn||0.30-0.60 %|
|Sulfur, S||≤ 0.050 %|
|Phosphorous, P||≤ 0.050 %|
|Carbon, C||0.13-0.18 %|
For hardness test, you can review;
|Mechanical Properties||Cold Drawn 1010 Steel||Hot Rolled Bar 1010 Steel|
|Hardness, Rockwell B||60||55|
|Tensile Strength, Ultimate||365 MPa||325 MPa|
|Tensile Strength, Yield||305 MPa||180 MPa|
|Elongation at Break||0.2||0.28|
|Reduction of Area||0.4||0.5|
|Modulus of Elasticity||205 GPa||200 Gpa|
|Bulk Modulus||160 GPa||160 GPa|
|Shear Modulus||80.0 GPa||80.0 GPa|
|Mechanical Properties||Cold Drawn 1010 Steel||Hot Rolled Bar 1010 Steel|
|CTE, linear (0-100 C)||105||95|
|0.000 - 300 °C||60||55|
|0.000 - 500 °C||365 MPa||325 MPa|
|Specific Heat Capacity - Temperature >=100 °C||0.448 J/g-°C||0.448 J/g-°C|
|Temperature 150 - 200 °C||0.498 J/g-°C||0.498 J/g-°C|
|Temperature 200 - 250 °C||0.519 J/g-°C||0.519 J/g-°C|
|Temperature 250 - 300 °C||0.536 J/g-°C||0.536 J/g-°C|
|Temperature 300 - 350 °C||0.565 J/g-°C||0.565 J/g-°C|
|Temperature 350 - 400 °C||0.590 J/g-°C||0.590 J/g-°C|
|Temperature 400 - 450 °C||0.649 J/g-°C||0.649 J/g-°C|
|Temperature 550 - 600 °C||0.729 J/g-°C||0.729 J/g-°C|
|Temperature 650 - 700 °C||0.825 J/g-°C||0.825 J/g-°C|
|Thermal Conductivity||49.8 W/m-K||51.9 W/m-K|
Let’s look into some of essential characteristics of 1010 steel as follows;
Microstructure of 1010 Steel
1010 steel is low carbon steel and mechanical properties can easily be understood from TTT diagram and iron-iron carbide diagram. You can check articles on how the microstructure can generate variation in mechanical properties.
If we summarize structure, then 1010 steel is basically in hypo-eutectoid region, major portion characterized as ferritic region.
1010 steel will have about 87.5% ferritic region and, only, 12.5% pearlitic region. Higher percentage of ferritic structure imparts good ductility, formability and high electrical conductivity in 1010 steel. Because of these characteristics, this steel is recommended for rid and bar type products.
After shaping the product in desired shape, this structure can be considerably hardened using various heat treatment techniques or steel can be hardened into shape during manufacturing process as well with forging, cold working and hot working.
Within this microstructure, white region indicated ferrite region while black region indicated grain boundaries and also Pearlitic region. You can checkout article on how you can scale your microstructure.
Heat Treatment of 1010 Steel
Heat treatment of 1010 steel is usually carried out in three possible ways;
Within this process, heat treatment is carried out to prepare material for subsequent operation. In case of 1010 steel, process annealing is carried out while forming drawing products. This type of annealing is basically carried out to stress relieve the microstructure and prepares it for further drawing.
Process Annealing of 1010 steel drawn products are is carried out in between recrystallization temperature and transformation temperature.
Most common application of 1010 steel is cold-headed bolts and for drawing 1010 to manufacture bolts, process annealing is carried out. Optimum temperature for process annealing during drawing for cold-headed bolts is 545 Centigrade as it is most effective in retaining mechanical properties while relieving stress.
Treating of Finished Parts to Improve Mechanical Properties.
During or before manufacturing process, steel can not be hardened as process becomes difficult to carry. That is why finished products are usually passed through heat treatment process to improve mechanical properties. Most of heat treatment operation that comes under this section includes Normalizing, and Quenching.
In general Machinability of low carbon steel is very poor because of high ferrite to carbide ratio. With annealing, we can increase pearlite percentage or carbide percentage, resultantly improving machinability.
As explained earlier, Normalizing is carried out to improve machinability, however, Quenching in Oil can give you better results. With Quenching in Oil, percentage of carbide will be highest with little to no stress. This process not only improves machinability but also increase hardness and tensile strength of product.
Tempering is normally not required after quenching for 1010 steel. 1010 steel are low hardness steel and quenching is required only to improve hardness; however, tempering can be performed to improvise of adjust hardness of already quenched 1010 steel only if required.
Recommended tempering temperature is around 105 to 205 Centigrade.
Case hardened low carbon steel are used in metal rolling mills, mining machinery and places where soft core and hard surface are desirable. With case hardening, purpose is to add carbon in outer surface of product making it harder while keeping core material softer at same time. Harder core will improve wear resistance while softer core will deliver impact resistance and flexible product.
Recommended case hardening process for 1010 steel is carbonitriding at temperature of 760-780 Centigrade in enriched endothermic carrier gas. After carbonitriding, quenching is carried out for maximum hardness in outer core. Other than quenching salt bath cooling can also give great deal of hardness.
Other case hardening processes that can be applied on 1010 steel are flame hardening and liquid carburizing.
All types of conventional welding can be performed on 1010 steel because of excessive amount ferrite and minimal amount of carbide.
To perform forging on 1010 steel, recommended temperature is in-between 1260 to 980 Centigrade.
In anneal form, 1010 steel will have poor machinability. Reason for poor machinability is enriched ferrite or softer phase. To improve machinability, it is recommended to perform quenching or normalizing before machinability. With normalizing, percentage of carbide will increase and it will facilitate tooling.
To perform hot working on 1010 steel, recommended temperature is 482 to 93 Centigrade.
Cold working is also beneficial for 1010 steel, as it will improve mechanical properties by introduces dislocations.
Principle application of this steel mainly includes in steel bar products, cold-heated bolts and fasteners, piping components, and wire products.
Frequently Asked Questions
Can 1010 steel be welded?
Yes, 1010 steel can be welded with all kinds of conventional welding techniques. Welding of 1010 steel is easier because of low amount of carbide.
Can 1010 steel be hardened?
1010 can be hardened using oil quenching for stress free hardness. 1010 steel can also be surface hardened using case hardening.
Is 1010 steel magnetic?
1010 steel has high percentage of alpha iron which is magnetic in nature. That is why 1010 steel ca act as suitable material for ferromagnetic cores.
Is 1010 steel ductile?
1010 steel is highly ductile due to 87.5% of alpha iron. Pearlite present is limited to grain boundaries, that is why it is considered as ductile steel.
Is 1010 steel stainless?
1010 steel is not stainless, because of excessive amount of free iron. There is no surface barrier that can protect free alpha iron form atmospheric oxygen and that is corrosion rate in case of 1010 steel is very high.